5 Aug 2012

Belajar STRUCTURE / GRAMMAR TOEFL 5

Skill 5: Perhatikan penggunaan dan posisi Past Participle

Penggunaan dan posisi Past Participle mirip dengan present participle yang telah di bahas kemarin (lihat di sini). Bedanya Past Participle berbentuk passive voice (di ...).

Past participle yaitu Verb III: purchased, written, taught,dll. Bentuk present participle dapat menjadi pengecoh dalam soal tes Structure TOEFL. Past participle bisa saja menjadi adjective (kata sifat) yang umunya menjelaskan subjek layaknya Appositive (lihat di sini mengenai appositive) atau menjadi bagian dari kata keja (verb) ketika di dahului oleh be (am, is, are, was, were) dan have (have, has, had)
  • The family has purchased a television.
  • The poem was written by Paul.
Pada kalimat pertama bentuk past participle 'purchased' merupakan bagian dari kata kerja karena di dahului oleh have (has). Sementara no. 2 past participle 'written' juga merupakan bagian dari kata kerja karena di dahului oleh be (was).
  • The television purchased yesterday was expensive.
  • The poem written by Paul appeared in the magazine.
Kedua bentuk past participle di atas (purchased dan written) tidak diikuti oleh be atau pun have maka ke duanya merupakan bentuk adjective yang menjelaskan masing-masing subjek dari kalimat (television dan poem). 
Contoh kalimat di bawah ini menggambarkan bagaimana past participle dapat menjadi pengecoh dalam test Structure TOEFL
Contoh
The packages _____ mailed at the post office will arrive Monday.
a) have
b) were
c) them
d) just
Jika di lihat sekilas atau hanya awal kalimatnya saja bisa-bisa kita terkecoh dengan menganggap mailed  itu sebagai verb dari kalimat padahal kalau kita lihat kalimatnya selengkapnya maka kita lihat ada verb di sana yaitu will arrive. Jadi dapat kita ketahui bahwa mailed itu bukanlah bagian dari verb melainkan sebagai adjective. Olehnya jawaban a) havedan d) were tidak dibutuhkan oleh mailed -yang berfungsi sebagai adjective. Jawaban c) them (objek tidaklah dibutuhkan. Jadi jawaban paling tepat yaitu d) just (adverb).

Contoh soal:
    1. The money was offered by the client was not accepted.  
    2. The car listed in the advertisement had already stalled.    
    3. The chapters were taught by the professor this morning will be on next week’s exam.   
    4. The loaves of bread were baked in a brick oven at a low temperature for many hours.   
    5. The ports were reached by the sailors were under the control of a foreign nation.           
    6. Those suspected in the string of robberies were arrested by police.          
    7. The pizza is served in this restaurant is the tastiest in the country.           
    8. The courses are listed on the second page of the brochure have several prerequisites.     
    9. All the tenants were invited to the Independence Day barbecue at the apartment             complex.       
    10. Any bills paid by the first of the month will be credited to your account by the next day.
    Ket:
    Yang diblok merupakan subjek.
    Yang diblok dan digaris bawahi merupakan verb (kata kerja).
    Yang dimiringkan merupakan (seharusnya) past participle.

    Pada kalimat 2, 4, 6, 9, dan 10 merupakan bentuk kalimat yang benar (sudah terdapat subjek dan verb) beserta penggunaan  past participle telah benar.
    Pada kalimat 1, 3, 5, 7, 8 merupkan bentuk kalimat salah karena mempunyai double verb. Seharusnya
    1. The money was offered by the client was not accepted.  
    2. The car listed in the advertisement had already stalled.    
    3. The chapters were taught by the professor this morning will be on next week’s exam.   
    4. The loaves of bread were baked in a brick oven at a low temperature for many hours.   
    5. The ports were reached by the sailors were under the control of a foreign nation.           
    6. Those suspected in the string of robberies were arrested by police.          
    7. The pizza is served in this restaurant is the tastiest in the country.           
    8. The courses are listed on the second page of the brochure have several prerequisites.     
    9. All the tenants were invited to the Independence Day barbecue at the apartment             complex.       
    10. Any bills paid by the first of the month will be credited to your account by the next day.
    Lihat juga:

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