“Jika anak Adam meninggal, maka amalnya terputus kecuali dari tiga perkara, sedekah jariyah (wakaf), ilmu yang bermanfaat, dan anak shaleh yang berdoa kepadanya.” (HR Muslim).

Aug 4, 2012

Belajar STRUCTURE / GRAMMAR TOEFL 4

Skill 4: Perhatikan penggunaan dan posisi Present Participle

Present participle yaitu Verb + ing: talking, playing, watching,dll. Bentuk present participle dapat menjadi pengecoh dalam soal tes Structure TOEFL. Present participle bisa saja menjadi adjective (kata sifat) yang umunya menjelaskan subjek layaknya Appositive (lihat di sini mengenai appositive) atau menjadi bagian dari kata keja (verb) ketika di dahului oleh be (am, is, are, was, were).
  1. The man is talking to his friend.
  2. The man talking to his  friend has a beard.
Pada kalimat pertama bentuk present participle talking merupakan bagian dari kata kerja karena di dahului oleh be (is). Sementara no. 2 present participle talking merupakan sebuah adjective (menjelaskan mengenai laki-laki itu) dan bukan sebagai bagian dari kata kerja karena tidak di dahului oleh be seperti kalimat pertama. Kata kerja dari kalimat ke dua yaitu has (the man has a beard).
Contoh kalimat di bawah ini menggambarkan bagaimana present participle dapat menjadi pengecoh dalam test Structure TOEFL.
Contoh
The child _____ playing in the yard is my son.
a) now
b) is
c) he
d) was
Pada kalimat di atas kita bisa melihat bahwa kalimat tersebut sudah mempunyai subjek (the child) dan verb (is). Jadi kata present participle playing merupakan sebuah adjective sehingga tidak butuh be sebelumnya. Olehnya jawaban b) is dan d) was tidak dibutuhkan oleh kalimat di atas (jawaban salah). Kalimat di atas sudah sempurna karena sudah mempunyai subjek dan verb sehingga tidak butuh lagi kata kerja (is/was) atau subjek (he) sehingga c) he juga salah. Jadi jawaban paling tepat yaitu a) now (adverb).

Contoh soal:
    1. The companies offering the lowest prices will have the most customers.
    2. Those travelers are completing their trip on Delta should report to Gate Three.
    3. The artisans were demonstrating various handicrafts at booths throughout the fair.
    4. The fraternities are giving the wildest parties attract the most new pledges.
    5. The first team winning four games is awarded the championship.
    6. The speaker was trying to make his point was often interrupted vociferously.
    7. The fruits were rotting because of the moisture in the crates carrying them to market.
    8. Any students desiring official transcripts should complete the appropriate form.
    9. The advertisements were announcing the half-day sale received a lot of attention.
    10. The spices flavoring the meal were quite distinctive.
      Ket:
    Yang diblok merupakan subjek.
    Yang diblok dan digaris bawahi merupakan verb (kata kerja).
    Yang dimiringkan merupakan (seharusnya) present participle.

    Pada kalimat 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, dan 10 merupakan bentuk kalimat yang benar (sudah terdapat subjek dan verb) beserta penggunaan  present participle telah benar.
    Pada kalimat 2, 4, 6, 9 merupkan bentuk kalimat salah karena mempunyai double verb. Seharusnya
    1. The companies offering the lowest prices will have the most customers.
    2. Those travelers are completing their trip on Delta should report to Gate Three.
    3. The artisans were demonstrating various handicrafts at booths throughout the fair.
    4. The fraternities are giving the wildest parties attract the most new pledges.
    5. The first team winning four games is awarded the championship.
    6. The speaker was trying to make his point was often interrupted vociferously.
    7. The fruits were rotting because of the moisture in the crates carrying them to market.
    8. Any students desiring official transcripts should complete the appropriate form.
    9. The advertisements were announcing the half-day sale received a lot of attention.
    10. The spices flavoring the meal were quite distinctive.
    Lihat juga:

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