Explanation Text beserta Soal dan Jawaban

Explanation Text beserta Soal dan Jawaban

Sumber: Soal UN SMA 2014

This text is for questions 11 to 14.
Biodiesel is a clean burning substitute for petroleum based diesel fuel. Biodiesel is made of vegetable oil.
To make or manufacture Biodiesel, you must first start with raw materials. The raw materials needed in the production of Biodiesel are a small amount of methanol and a ready supply of vegetable product. One of the most common vegetables used in the production of Biodiesel is corn, although depending on the geographic location of the manufacturing facility many other plants are used as well (rapeseed, soybeans, flaxseed, etc.). The first step is to use the raw vegetable product to make vegetable oil. Vegetable oil by itself will not be what you need to power a car, from here it has to be processed into Biodiesel.
The process for converting vegetable oil into Biodiesel is sometimes called ester interchange. To complete this process the vegetable oil has to be combined with a smaller amount of methanol and then put in the presence of a small quantity of an alkaline catalyst (for example, 5% to 1% sodium hydroxide). Vegetable oil is made up of so-called triglycerides, which is a compound of the trivalent alcohol glycerin with three fatty acids. The goal of ester interchange is to separate the glycerin molecule from the three fatty acids and replace it with three methanol molecules. This process then yields roughly 90% Biodiesel and 10% of a glycerin byproduct. The glycerin byproduct can be used in a number of other chemical processes for different industries.

11. What is the text about?
A.     The process of making Biodiesel.
B.     The use of the Biodiesel.
C.     The advantage of using the Biodiesel.
D.     The benefit of producing the Biodiesel.
E.      The development of the Biodiesel product.

12. What are interchanged in the process of ester interchange?
A.     The three fatty acids with the glycerin molecules.
B.     The glycerin molecule with three methanol molecules.
C.     Methanol with the three fatty acids.
D.     Vegetable oil with methanol
E.      Methanol and alkaline catalyst.

13. According to the text, one of the advantages in using biodiesel is…
A.     it is cheap.
B.     it only uses vegetable oil.
C.     it uses replaceable materials.
D.     it can be done in small industry.
E.      it gives less pollution than petroleum.

14. “The process for converting vegetable oil…”(Paragraph 3)
       The underline word is closest in meaning to…
A.       Producing
B.        Separating
C.        Attaching
D.       Processing

E.        Changing

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