“Jika anak Adam meninggal, maka amalnya terputus kecuali dari tiga perkara, sedekah jariyah (wakaf), ilmu yang bermanfaat, dan anak shaleh yang berdoa kepadanya.” (HR Muslim).

May 27, 2012

Pengertian dan jenis-jenis Inversion (English Grammar)



Di dalam kalimat inversion (inverse/pembalikan) kata kerja utama ataupun kata kerja bantu berada sebelum subjek. Ada dua tipe umum inversion:


1.    Subject-verb Inversion
  •   Best of all would be to get a job in Willingham.
  • On long wall hung a row of van Goghs.
  • Then came the turning point of the match.
  •  Here comes the first question.
  • There is the dog. Call the dog.
  • Down came the rain.
  • There’s your sister.
Main/Auxiliary Verb + Subject
  2.   Subject-Operator Inversion
  • Not before in our history have so many strong influences united to produce so large a disaster.
  • Never again did I think of disobedience.
  • On no account must he strain.
  • So badly was he affected that he had to be taught to speak again.
  • Is the weather improving?
  • Not a word did he say
Auxiliary Verb + Subject + Main Verb

Perhatikan penggunaan so, such, neither, dan nor.
  • She hadn’t known much about life, nor had he.
  •  As infections increased in woman, so did infections in their babies.
  • Such is the gravity of the situation that it has already sparked an international incident.I do not want to go, neither does Ali


Bentuk-bentuk inversion:
1.   Kalimat Pertanyaan (Questions)
  • Have you finished your paper?
  • Where is the concert taking place?
Perhatikan:
   I wondered how reliable was the information I had been given.

      2.   Setelah Ekspresi Kata Keterangan Tempat (Place or Direction Expressions)
  •       In an arm chair sat his mother. (BUKAN In an arm chair sat she.)
  •       Under a tree was lying one of the biggest men I had ever seen.
  •       Directly in front of them stood a great castle.
  •       In the forest are many exotic birds.
  •       In the forest I walked for many hours. (Tidak butuh diinversi; KK tempat nya bisa dihilangkan)
  •       Here comes Freddy! (dalam percakapan)
  •       There goes your brother. (dalam percakapan)
  •       Nowhere have I seen such beautiful weather.
              Jika subjek sebuah kata ganti (pronoun):
              Here she comes. (BUKAN Here comes she.)

      3.   Kalimat Pengandaian (Conditional Sentences)
  •             I would help you if I were in a position to help.
  •       I would help you were I in a position to help. (inversion; kata if dihilangkan)
  •       If he had asked, I would have been able to help.
  •       Had he asked, I would have been able to help. (inversion)
  •       If you should arrive before six, just give me a call.
  •       Should you arrive before six, just give me a call. (inversion)
          Dalam kasus ini, kata negatif tidak di singkat:
            Had he not resigned, we would have beenforced to sack him.(BUKAN Hadn't he...)
            Had we not spent all our money already … (BUKAN Hadn’t we spent …)

            4.   Kalimat Perbandingan (Comparisons: As dan Than)
  •       My sister spends more hours in the office than John.
  •       My sister spends more hours in the office than John does.
  •       My sister spends more hours in the office than does John. (inversion)
  •       She was very religious, as most of her friends were.
  •       She was very religious, as were most of her friends. (inversion)
          Inversion tidak digunakan ketika subjeknya berupa kata ganti orang (pronoun)

     5.   Kata-Kata Bermakna Negative (Negative Expressions)
  •            I have never seen it.
  •       Never have I seen it. (inversion)
  •       He did not say a word.
  •       Not a word did he say. (inversion)
  •       I seldom sleep during the day.
  •       Seldom do I sleep during the day.
  •       Much have I learned from him. (much: tidak sedikit).
  •       I do not want to go, and neither does Tom.
  •       Sheila did not arrive late for work, nor did she leave
Negative + Auxiliary Verb + Subject
Kata negative lainnya: never, seldom, rarely, little, few, not a, not only, only later, only then, only if, not once, hardly ever, scarcely ever, barely ever, much, in no other way, under/in no circumstances, nor, neither. Not far dan not long tidak digunakan dalam inversion.

     6.   So + adjective… that; Such + be… that
  •      Her business was so successful that Marie was able to retire at the age of 50.
  •       So successful was her business that Marie was able to retire at the age of 50. (inversion)
  •       The weather conditions became so dangerous that all mountain roads were closed.
  •       So dangerous did weather conditions become that all mountain roads were closed. (inversion)
  •       The play is so popular that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
  •       Such is the popularity of the play that the theatre is likely to be full every night.

     7.   Dalam permohonan (Wishes: May)
  •       May all your wishes come true!
  •       May Allah bless you!

      8.   Story-telling
  •       “What do you mean?” asked Henry.
  •       “I love you” Whispered Jan.
                  Jika subjek sebuah pronoun:
                      “What do you mean?” he asked.



Reference:
  • Azhar, Arsyad. 1987. Mastering Modern English Structure.  Ujungpandang: AMA Press.
  • Biber Douglas & Susan Conrad, Geoffrey Leech. 2003. Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. England: Logman.
  • Leech,  Geoffrey. 2006. A Glossary of English Grammar. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Hewings, Martin. 2002. Advanced Grammar in Use. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Philips, 2000. Deborah. Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test. Longman.
  • Swan, Michael. 2009. Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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2 comments:

rains selifan said...

Thanks so much for the lesson :)

Muhammad Arifin said...

You're welcome. Don't forget to join our facebook page.

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