Pengertian dan jenis-jenis Inversion (English Grammar)



Di dalam kalimat inversion (inverse/pembalikan) kata kerja utama ataupun kata kerja bantu berada sebelum subjek. Ada dua tipe umum inversion:


1.    Subject-verb Inversion
  •   Best of all would be to get a job in Willingham.
  • On long wall hung a row of van Goghs.
  • Then came the turning point of the match.
  •  Here comes the first question.
  • There is the dog. Call the dog.
  • Down came the rain.
  • There’s your sister.
Main/Auxiliary Verb + Subject
  2.   Subject-Operator Inversion
  • Not before in our history have so many strong influences united to produce so large a disaster.
  • Never again did I think of disobedience.
  • On no account must he strain.
  • So badly was he affected that he had to be taught to speak again.
  • Is the weather improving?
  • Not a word did he say
Auxiliary Verb + Subject + Main Verb

Perhatikan penggunaan so, such, neither, dan nor.
  • She hadn’t known much about life, nor had he.
  •  As infections increased in woman, so did infections in their babies.
  • Such is the gravity of the situation that it has already sparked an international incident.I do not want to go, neither does Ali


Bentuk-bentuk inversion:
1.   Kalimat Pertanyaan (Questions)
  • Have you finished your paper?
  • Where is the concert taking place?
Perhatikan:
   I wondered how reliable was the information I had been given.

      2.   Setelah Ekspresi Kata Keterangan Tempat (Place or Direction Expressions)
  •       In an arm chair sat his mother. (BUKAN In an arm chair sat she.)
  •       Under a tree was lying one of the biggest men I had ever seen.
  •       Directly in front of them stood a great castle.
  •       In the forest are many exotic birds.
  •       In the forest I walked for many hours. (Tidak butuh diinversi; KK tempat nya bisa dihilangkan)
  •       Here comes Freddy! (dalam percakapan)
  •       There goes your brother. (dalam percakapan)
  •       Nowhere have I seen such beautiful weather.
              Jika subjek sebuah kata ganti (pronoun):
              Here she comes. (BUKAN Here comes she.)

      3.   Kalimat Pengandaian (Conditional Sentences)
  •             I would help you if I were in a position to help.
  •       I would help you were I in a position to help. (inversion; kata if dihilangkan)
  •       If he had asked, I would have been able to help.
  •       Had he asked, I would have been able to help. (inversion)
  •       If you should arrive before six, just give me a call.
  •       Should you arrive before six, just give me a call. (inversion)
          Dalam kasus ini, kata negatif tidak di singkat:
            Had he not resigned, we would have beenforced to sack him.(BUKAN Hadn't he...)
            Had we not spent all our money already … (BUKAN Hadn’t we spent …)

            4.   Kalimat Perbandingan (Comparisons: As dan Than)
  •       My sister spends more hours in the office than John.
  •       My sister spends more hours in the office than John does.
  •       My sister spends more hours in the office than does John. (inversion)
  •       She was very religious, as most of her friends were.
  •       She was very religious, as were most of her friends. (inversion)
          Inversion tidak digunakan ketika subjeknya berupa kata ganti orang (pronoun)

     5.   Kata-Kata Bermakna Negative (Negative Expressions)
  •            I have never seen it.
  •       Never have I seen it. (inversion)
  •       He did not say a word.
  •       Not a word did he say. (inversion)
  •       I seldom sleep during the day.
  •       Seldom do I sleep during the day.
  •       Much have I learned from him. (much: tidak sedikit).
  •       I do not want to go, and neither does Tom.
  •       Sheila did not arrive late for work, nor did she leave
Negative + Auxiliary Verb + Subject
Kata negative lainnya: never, seldom, rarely, little, few, not a, not only, only later, only then, only if, not once, hardly ever, scarcely ever, barely ever, much, in no other way, under/in no circumstances, nor, neither. Not far dan not long tidak digunakan dalam inversion.

     6.   So + adjective… that; Such + be… that
  •      Her business was so successful that Marie was able to retire at the age of 50.
  •       So successful was her business that Marie was able to retire at the age of 50. (inversion)
  •       The weather conditions became so dangerous that all mountain roads were closed.
  •       So dangerous did weather conditions become that all mountain roads were closed. (inversion)
  •       The play is so popular that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
  •       Such is the popularity of the play that the theatre is likely to be full every night.

     7.   Dalam permohonan (Wishes: May)
  •       May all your wishes come true!
  •       May Allah bless you!

      8.   Story-telling
  •       “What do you mean?” asked Henry.
  •       “I love you” Whispered Jan.
                  Jika subjek sebuah pronoun:
                      “What do you mean?” he asked.



Reference:
  • Azhar, Arsyad. 1987. Mastering Modern English Structure.  Ujungpandang: AMA Press.
  • Biber Douglas & Susan Conrad, Geoffrey Leech. 2003. Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. England: Logman.
  • Leech,  Geoffrey. 2006. A Glossary of English Grammar. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Hewings, Martin. 2002. Advanced Grammar in Use. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Philips, 2000. Deborah. Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test. Longman.
  • Swan, Michael. 2009. Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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2 comments:

rains selifan said...

Thanks so much for the lesson :)

Muhammad Arifin said...

You're welcome. Don't forget to join our facebook page.

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