“Jika anak Adam meninggal, maka amalnya terputus kecuali dari tiga perkara, sedekah jariyah (wakaf), ilmu yang bermanfaat, dan anak shaleh yang berdoa kepadanya.” (HR Muslim).

Jul 21, 2012

Filsafat Pendidikan Islami - Book Report

INTRODUCTION

A.   Book identities
1.     Book Title: Filsafat Pendidikan Islami
2.      Author: Prof. Dr. Ahmad 
3.      Publisher: PT Remaja Rosdakarya  Bandung
4.      Year of publication: 2008
5.      Number of chapters: Ten (10)
6.    Number of chapters: Ten (10) Number of pages: 343

B.  Book purposes
The aim of this book is to introduce education philosophy based on Islamic view. The book was compiled from materials that the author used while teaching in some universities. This book is intended to prepare students of education faculties of UIN/IAIN for better education.

C.  Thesis about the book
It is suitable for students of education faculty because in this book the author described education not only in religious view but also in other aspects. Thus, it will help students as a candidate of a teacher understand about education well.  


SUMMARY OF THE CONTENT

Unit 1 Introduction
               Differences of education philosophy and science theory
The theory of education philosophy and science is not the same at all. The education philosophy theory can only be accepted rationally but not empirically, whereas the education science theory is not only can be accepted rationally but also can be proven empirically.

       Knowledge                      
       Paradigm
       Object
       Method       
      Criterion
      SCIENCE
       Science (scientific)
        Empirical
      Science (scientific)
       Rational-empirical
     PHILOSOPHY
     Rational
     Abstract-rational
    Rational
Rational

Unit 2 human essence
The essentials of a human being need to be discussed because what we do in education is for human beings themselves. In this chapter there are three topics talking about human essence: essentials of a human being according to some experts and God, and the last is human essence, as the aims of education.

Human’s View of Human Essence
Plato, a pupil of Socrates, stated that human beings had three elements: soul, desire, and rationality.
Rene Descartes (1596-1650), a French philosopher, considered a brain (rationality) the essential of human beings. Descartes believed that human beings had emotion, a combination of love, joy, desire, rage, sorrow, and wonder.
John Locke (1623-17040), an English philosopher and physician, postulated that the mind was a blank state or tabula rasa, a theory that individuals are born without built-in mental content and that their knowledge comes from experience and perception. This theory believes that education influences someone so much.
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), a German philosopher, stated “it always remains a scandal of philosophy and universal human reason that the existence of things outside us should have to be assumed merely on faith, and that if it occurs to anyone to doubt it, we should be unable to answer him with a satisfactory proof.” One of his contributions to education is his statement that human beings are rational. It means that human beings act based on morality; they do something not only for the sake of their life but also for others. Indeed, when human beings perform something they must have reasons.

God’s View of Human Essence
The best explanation about the essentials of human beings is of course based on the view of the God, who creates the human beings. In Al Quran, it is said that a human being is created with the combination of body, brain to think, and soul managed by ‘Iman’ in heart.

What have we known?
Some of the western experts have the same opinion of Islamic view related to the core of human essence. The experts stated that the core of the human essence is emotion or spirit; it is not different from Islamic view that says ‘iman’ in heart is the center of human essence.

Unit 3 Education Essence
Definition of education
Education is a process by which society transfers knowledge, skills, customs, and values from one generation to another. Education is hoped to be able to create people needed for better society.

Education: unfinished agenda
Education is considered an unfinished agenda because of some reasons: the first is that everyone wants to be better. By education, he or she will be able to have a good opportunity to be a better person. Next, the theory in education is impossible to be used in all places in the world. Time always changes; it means the theory also has to be revised. The last is because of different condition and situation. A certain theory could be applied successfully in a new place, yet there is no guarantee that the theory will also be successful to another place.

Rationalism as education fundamental
Rationalism is a practice of treating reason as the basis of belief and knowledge. Greek people 600 years BC tried to use their brain as the only basis of knowledge. They believed that there was no absolute knowledge. Luckily, Socrates, supported by Plato and Aristotle, proved that there was not only relative truth but also absolute truth, which could be got in religion. 

Improving basis as the values
One of the duties of education is to teach values. In teaching values, the teacher should know      the values, which will be shared to pupils. In Indonesia, the values are based on the five points of Pancasila. Pancasila is the basis of culture of Indonesia.

National ideology as the basis of education
The five points in Pancasila, the philosophy of Indonesia, is too general. The points are explained more detailed in constitution (UU). In creating the basis of education, the people of Indonesia must be based on the values written in Pancasila.

Unit 5 Aims of Education
            Best human beings as the education goal
Everyone wants to be better. One of the ways to have that wish is through education. Education is hoped to be able to create good human beings. However, no one knows exactly the true characteristics of a good human. Quality of a good human is based on the people’s way of life. Different religions means different ways of life. To cope this, a country must have its own ideology to be used in describing the quality of a good human.

Characteristics of hoped outcomes
The author presented some characteristics of qualified outcomes. The outcomes must:
1.      Have high disciplined,
2.      Be honest,
3.      Be creative,
4.      Have high motivation to develop,
5.      Not give up easily,
6.      Have good self confidence,
7.      Be cooperative,
8.      Be democratic,
9.      Be able to use the time wisely,
10.  Have high Emotional Quotient (EQ)

Competency based-education
Every level of schools has its own standard competence. Competency-based education curriculum (KBK) should focus on the following concepts:
1.      The aims of every lesson should be based on the general aims of the school.
2.      KBK will not be needed anymore if the education runs well.
3.      Competency means skills. The necessary skills are skills that we can use in life.

Competency mastery
The outcomes are hoped to be able to master skills that they have in educational institutions. They should be able to use the skills in the real life. They must be able to live cooperatively with the people around him.

Civil society
There are three important factors in creating civil society:
1.      Humanity laws are needed,
2.    People are willing to obey the laws,
3.      The leader must take care of the laws honestly.

Unit 6 Education Curriculum
Definition of curriculum
Curriculum could have three meanings:
1.      Curriculum is the list of lessons in a educational institution.
2.      Curriculum means syllabus.
3.      Curriculum is the school program.

Islamic knowledge framework
All knowledge is from God. There are three kinds of knowledge: science, philosophy, and mystic knowledge.
Knowledge
Paradigm
Object
Method
Criterion
SCIENCE
Science (scientific)
Empirical
Science (scientific)
Rational-empirical
PHILOSOPHY
Rational
Abstract-rational
Rational
Rational
MYSTICISM
Supernatural
Abstract-supernatural
Exercise, belief
Belief, sometimes empirical

Ethics as a lesson at school
Education of ethics could be taught trough religion subject. Ethics should be based on the religious view.
Soul education is the core of curriculum
As the explanation of the previous chapter, the true essence of human beings is the soul. Therefore, the curriculum must focus on the soul education if we want to create the real human beings.

Unit 7 Pupils
Pupils
Pupils or students are the ones who will be taught. There are some obligations for the pupils:
1.      Students must focus on their soul development most than other aspects.
2.      Students must decrease their excitement of life in the world, yet they must be able to focus also on life in hereafter.
3.      Students learn sincerely from their teachers. They must respect their teacher.
4.      Students should be able to be open with the difference opinion.
5.      Students have to identify the most important lessons to know or the levels.

Unit 8 Educational Institutions
“Madrasah”, religion-based curriculum, is a school that tries to balance the religious subject and the general subject. It is believed that students who are very keen at general subjects are not the hoped outcomes, yet the real outcomes are students who have balanced knowledge, between religious subject and general subject. As the proof is that, corruption has been a chronic problem in Indonesia. The corruptors are of course smart people, but they are not religious people. UIN or IAIN can be said as a university that tries to balance between religious subjects and general subjects.

Unit 9 Process of Education
The process of education should teach students how to be a religious or obedient person rather than just give them much information about their religion. For a Muslim we can say education must make students act as a Muslim instead of having much information only about Islam. In other words, students not only know the knowledge but also they can do or apply the knowledge. The most important thing is how they can be the person based on the knowledge that they get.

Unit 10 Education Development
One aspect that we should focus on developing education is curriculum. The curriculum is the main point if we want to make education better. That is why the experts of education must understand well about the curriculum. There are three important aspects in revising a curriculum:
1.      Islamic education as one of the lessons at school
2.      Local culture and job vacancy
3.      Nation, language, history, culture of nation, Indonesian geography, science, and art
4.      English, culture of the world, and competition among the countries.
 


STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES

Strength:
  1. This book is easy to understand.
  2. The author tried to present some ideas from some experts first before he expressed his own ideas.
  3. The author did not take Islamic ideas merely but also from non-Muslim experts.
  4. Despite the purpose of the book for students of education faculty of UIN or IAIN, the book is also good to read by everyone.
  5. It has many references.
  6. The biography of the writer is given.
  7. It has many small chapters to emphasize the points.

Weaknesses:
  1. The book is not arranged systematically.
  2. Some uncommon words are not explained well by the author.

Key:
Contoh buku laporan berbahasa Inggris
Contoh laporan buku dalam bahasa inggris

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