22 May 2012

Understanding Cancer



Activity 1
READING

Read and listen to the text carefully. Double-click on any word to find the definition in the dictionary in bottom right position.

Cancer, known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a broad group of various diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invade nearby parts of the body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. Not all tumors are cancerous. Benign tumors do not grow uncontrollably, do not invade neighboring tissues, and do not spread throughout the body. There are over 200 different known cancers that afflict humans.
Cancer types can be grouped into broader categories. The main categories of cancer include:
  1. Carcinoma - cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs. Sarcoma - cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. 
  2. Leukemia - cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. 
  3. Lymphoma and myeloma - cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. 
  4. Central nervous system cancers - cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. 
Determining what causes cancer is complex. Many things are known to increase the risk of cancer, including tobacco use, certain infections, radiation, lack of physical activity, obesity, and environmental pollutants. These can directly damage genes or combine with existing genetic faults within cells to cause the disease. Approximately five to ten percent of cancers are entirely hereditary.
Cancer can be detected in a number of ways, including the presence of certain signs and symptoms, screening tests, or medical imaging. Once a possible cancer is detected it is diagnosed by microscopic examination of a tissue sample. Cancer is usually treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery. The chances of surviving the disease vary greatly by the type and location of the cancer and the extent of disease at the start of treatment. While cancer can affect people of all ages, and a few types of cancer are more common in children, the risk of developing cancer generally increases with age. In 2007, cancer caused about 13% of all human deaths worldwide (7.9 million). Rates are rising as more people live to an old age and as mass lifestyle changes occur in the developing world. 
(Adapted from Wikipedia and http://www.cancer.gov)



Answer the following question based on the text. You may read the glossary below first to help you understand the passage well before you decided to start answering the questions.
  1. What is cancer?
  2. Generally, how many types of cancer are there? How to prevent our body from cancer?
  3. What is the difference between malignant and benign tumor?
  4. How to diagnose cancer?
  5. Whom can be affected by cancer? 
GLOSARRY
NO
TULISAN
KELAS KATA  
CARA UCAP
ARTI
1
Malignant
Adjective
mә"lIg.nәnt
ganas
2
Neoplasm
Noun
ni:.әU "plæz.mә
neoplasma; tumor
3
Invade
Verb
In"veId
menyerang
4
Lymphatic system
Noun
lImp"fæt.Ik "sIs.tәm
(dinding usus) getah bening
5
Determining
Verb
dI"t3:.mInI ƞ
menentukan
6
Benign
Adjective
bI"naIn
jinak
7
Tissue
Noun
"tI∫.u:
jaringan
8
Hereditary
Adjective
hә"red.I.tri
turun temurun
9
Treated
Verb
tri:tid
diobati
10
Extent
Noun
Ik"stent
luas; tingkat

Activity 2
LISTENING
While listening, complete the text. Click the audio to hear the text.  



Don't use tobacco!


Using any type of tobacco puts you on a course with cancer. Smoking has been linked to various types of cancer — including cancer of the lung, bladder, cervix and kidney — and chewing tobacco has been linked to cancer of the oral and pancreas. Even if you don't use tobacco, exposure to secondhand smoke may your risk of lung cancer.


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