23 May 2012

Malaria

(From Google image)
Malaria is an infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes, and it is one of the commonest causes of sickness and death in the world. If an infected mosquito bites a person, minute parasites (protozoon) are injected into his bloodstream, where they multiply rapidly. As the parasites multiply, they destroy the red cells of the blood, and the victim suffers an attack of fever. The symptoms of the attack are headache and anemia.
If the disease is untreated, most patients will recover after a dozen attacks, but if there are complications, malaria may lead to death from the loss of blood cells and exhaustion from repeated infection.
There are many drugs for treating malaria, all of which are very effective. Quinine used to be standard cure but now synthetic drugs, such as primaquine and chloroquin are used.
Malaria can be prevented. Firstly, if every case could be treated, mosquitoes could not be infected, and their bites would be harmless. Secondly, mosquitoes may be killed by insecticides. Thirdly, a person who is exposed to the infection may protect himself by taking small doses of an anti-malarial drug regularly. 
(Adapted from General English Materials for Health Students)



Answer the following question based on the text. You may read the glossary below first to help you understand the passage well before you decided to start answering the questions.
1.   What is the main idea of the first paragraph?
2.   What are the symptoms of the attack Malaria?
3.   Can people dead because of a Malaria attack if so, how?
4.   How to cure the disease?
5.   What should people do to prevent Malaria?


Glossary
No
Tulisan
Kelas Kata
Cara Ucap
Arti
1
Infectious
Adjective
In"fek.∫әs
menular
2
Transmitted

tr æ nz"mIt
ditularkan; terjangkit
3
Mosquito
Noun
mә"ski:.tәU
nyamuk
4
Bite
Verb
baIt
menggigit
5
Multiply
Verb
"m Ʌ l.tI.plaI
berkembang biak
6
Destroy
Verb
dI"strOI
merusak
7
Victim
Noun
"vIk.tIm
korban
8
Untreated
Adjective
Vn"tri:.tId
tak diobati
9
Recover
Verb
rI"k Ʌ v.әr
sembuh
10
Loss
Noun
lϷs
kehilangan
11
Exhaustion
Noun
Ig"zO:s.t∫әn
kelelahan; keletihan
12
Prevented
Verb
prI"ventid
dicegah
13
Harmless
Adejective
"hɑ:m.lәs
tak berbahaya

Malaria is concentrated on the outer islands of Papua, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Sumatra. It occurs with low frequency or is absent on the islands of Java and Bali where approximately 70% of the population live. All species of human malaria parasites are found in Indonesia.  Recently, country reported about existence of P. kowlesispecies also.  Formerly, P. malariae and P. ovale were mostly found in the eastern part of Indonesia, Nusa Tenggara Timur and Papua. Around 117 million people are at varied degrees of risk. Malaria transmission in Indonesia is perennial.  P. vivax and P. falciparum are the most common types of malaria species prevalent in the country.


Source:
Susilowati, Endang. 2007. General English Material for Health Student. Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC: Jakarta.

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