22 May 2012

The Basic Component of Food



Activity 1
READING
Read and listen to the text carefully. Double-click on any word to find the definition in the dictionary in bottom right position.
(From Google image)

All foods are composed of chemical compounds. During the process of digestion, our bodies break these compounds into simpler ones and then reassemble them into other kinds of chemicals that can be directly used by the body. There are four basic groups of chemicals in the food we eat: protein, carbohydrates, fat, and vitamins and minerals.
Protein, found in meat, eggs, dairy product and some other foods, is important for growth and repair of the body. The body uses protein to build muscle, hair, teeth, nails, bones, nerve cells, hemoglobin and enzymes. There are also specials proteins, known as nucleic acids, in the nuclei of all the cells in your body. Protein is made up of twenty-two different amino acids, ‘the building blocks’ of the body. Of these twenty-two, eight are called essential amino acids because the body cannot produce them. You must get them directly in your food. The body can make the other fourteen amino acids.
All eight essential amino acids must be present in your body at the same time in order for the body to form protein. Since free amino acids cannot be stored in the body, this means that you must consume the eight essential acids at approximately the same time preferably at the same meals for your body to use them.
Carbohydrates, found in spaghetti, bread, cereal, rice, potatoes, candy, most fruit and vegetables and other foods, are our source of ready energy. They contribute approximately 50 percent of the body’s energy needs and are its most economical energy source. They include two major types: sugar and starches.
Fat has gotten a bad reputation recently yet fat in the diet is essential to good health. Besides serving as an additional energy source, fats also known as lipids give flavor and juiciness to many of the foods we eat. Fats also insulate the body, protect vital organs, protecting them from injury, serve as carries for the four fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) and contribute to hormone synthesis and the blood clotting mechanism. Unused fats, like extra carbohydrates, are stored as fat tissue and drawn on by the body when they are needed for energy. Stored fats are the greatest nutritional reservoir in the body.
Vitamins, along with minerals, are often referred to as ’micronutrients’ because they are required in only trace amounts. Yet they are needed in moving vital bodily functions. Vitamins do not form new compounds in the body, as proteins, carbohydrates and fats do. Rather, they help other chemical reactions to take place. For example, vitamin D is necessary for calcium to become part of the bone structure, and vitamin A is necessary to protect our eyes.
(Adapted from  Progress for Senior High School Year 1 2004)

Answer the following question based on the text. You may read the glossary below first to help you understand the passage well before you decided to start answering the questions.

1.   What is the main idea of each paragraph?
2.   What are the functions of protein?
3.   What are the risks of lack of protein?
4.   Where can people get essential amino acids?
5.   How many essential amino acids are required by our body?
6.   What is the role of carbohydrate to our body?
7.   Where do people get carbohydrate? 
8.   What are the tasks of fat?
9.   Where is extra fat stored?
10.  Why are vitamins referred to as miscronutrients?

GLOSSARY
NO
TULISAN
KELAS KATA
CARA UCAPAN
ARTI
1
Chemical
Adjective
"kem.I.kәl
kimiawi
2
Compound
Noun
"ka:m.paUnd
Senyawa
3
Digestion
Noun
daI"d∫es.tSәn
pencernaan
4
Reassemble
Verb
,ri:.ә"sem.bl
mengumpulkan lagi
5
Basic
Adjectiveda
"beI.sIk
Dasar
6
Dairy product
Noun
"deә.ri
produk susu
7
Growth
Noun
"pra:d.Ʌkt
Pertumbuhan
8
Repair
Noun
rI"peәr
Perbaikan
9
Muscle
Noun
"mɅs.l
otot, urat
10
Nucleus
Noun
"nju:.kli.әs
dasar, inti
11
Amino acids
Noun
ә,mi:.nәU"æs.Id
asam amino
12
Building block
Noun
"bIl.dIƞbla:k
zat pembangunan
13
Starch
Noun
stA:t∫
kanji (zat tepung)
14
Lipid
Noun
"lIp.Id
Lemak
15
Flavour
Noun
"fleI.vәr
rasa, selera
16
Juiciness
Noun
"dƷu:.sI.nәs
banyak airnya, sarinya
17
Insulate
Verb
"In.sjU.leIt
mengisolasi, menyekat
18
Fat-soluble vitamin
Noun
fæt "sa:l.jU.bl
vitamin yang larut dalam lemak
19
Fat tissue
Noun
"vIt.ә.mIn
jaringan lemak
20
Reservoir
Noun
"rez.ә.vwa:r
Simpanan
21
Trace
Adjective
treIs
Sedikit
Activity 2
LISTENING
While listening, complete the text. Click the audio to hear the text.  

Health Food

"Health food" is sometimes used as an umbrella term encompassing natural foods, organic foods, whole foods, and sometimes supplements. Such products are sold in health food stores or in the health/organic sections of supermarkets. "Health food" may also refer to food: foods for which a specific claim of health benefits is made, such as that consumption of the food may prevent disease. Additionally, "health food" is sometimes used "junk food", which may be high in calories but has little other nutritional value.


Activity 3
WRITING
I.  Write about what kinds of foods you eat. Here are examples:

1.  “I don’t like vegetables. My doctor says I need to eat vegetables. I like meat. I eat meat every day. My doctor says I need to eat less meat. I love fruit. I eat fruit everyday. My doctor says it is good to eat a lot of fruit. I like cheese and milk. I have milk at breakfast.”

2.  “I have a healthy diet. I like fruits and vegetables. I eat fruits and vegetables everyday. I eat grains and beans. I eat chicken and fish. I love yogurt. I like to eat it for lunch. I like sweets, but I don't eat sweets everyday.”

3.  “I like vegetables. My doctor says it's good to eat a lot of vegetables, but I have a little problem. I like to eat sweets. I like cake, cookies, ice cream, and chocolate. I love chocolate. My doctor says I need to eat less sweet foods, and drink less soda.”

II. Describe your food diary. Here are examples:
1.




















Source:
Zumakhsin, Hilal Madjidi. 2004. Progress for Senior High School Year 1. Jakarta: Ganeca Exact.
Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (an application for PC)

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